SALLY SHAYWITZ, MD, and BENNETT SHAYWITZ, MD, are the Co-Founders and Co-Directors of the Yale Center for Dyslexia and Creativity. Lab partners for 35 years (and marriage partners for 55 years), the Shaywitzes are the world’s leading experts on dyslexia. Sally, 76, and Bennett, 79, are academic physicians: she specializes in developmental pediatrics, and he is a neurologist and neuroscientist. Working together, they discovered dyslexia’s scientific basis, pioneered effective therapies, and changed public attitudes. To understand how reading behavior might change from childhood to adulthood, the Shaywitzes have continuously studied, for three and a half decades, 455 people from the age of five. Their research shows that dyslexia affects boys and girls in equal numbers, is not something that’s outgrown, and is not linked to intelligence. Brain scan studies that Bennett conducted reveal a neural signature—a particular brain abnormality—responsible for dyslexia, which is the most common learning disorder in the United States, affecting 1 in 5 people.